Web References

Scalder & Chillers

• Effect of Acetic Acid on the Microbiological Quality of Scalded Picked and Unpicked Broiler Carcasses
H.S. Lillard, L.C. Blankenship, J.A. Dickens, S.E. Craven and A.D. Shackkelford
Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 50 No. 2 Pg. 112-114
• Reduction of Bacterial Attachment to Poultry Skin by Changing Scalding Temperature
Dr. Mike F. Slavik, Dr. Carl L. Griffis and Dr. Jeong-Weon Kim
University of Arkansas Dept. of Poultry Science
• Reduction of Salmonella and Campylobacter on Chicken Carcasses by Changing Scalding Temperature
Michael F. Slavik, Jeong-Weon Kim and Joel T. Walker
Dept. of Poultry Science, and Dept. of Biological & Agri Engineering,
University of Arkansas
Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 58 June 1995
• Counter-Flow Scalding and Reprocessing: Do They Work?
Amy L. Waldroup
Broiler Industry/ Feb., 1994
• Microbiological Quality of Counter-Flow Scalded and Reprocessed Broilers
Amy L. Waldroup, Assoc. Prof.
Dept. of Poultry Science
University of Arkansas
• Results of A National Survey: Salmonella in Broilers and Overflow Chill Tank Water, 1982-1984
Stanley S. Green, Microbiology Div.
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
March 1987
• Aerobic Bacteria and Solids in a Three-Tank, Two- Pass, Counter flow Scalder
J.A. Cason, A. D. Whittemore and A. D. Shackelford
USDA, Agricultural Research Service,
1999 Poultry Science 78: 144-147
• Cross-Contamination During the Scalding and Plucking of Broilers
R.W.A.W. Mulder, L.W. J. Dorresteijn and J.Van Der Broek
Processing Dept., Spelder Institute for Poultry Research
Br. Poult. Sci., 19: 61-70. 1978
• Reduction of Campylobacter Jejuni In Poultry Chiller Water Using Electrical Treatment
By: Y.Li, J.T. Walker Asst. Prof, Professor Biological and Agricultural Engineering Dept.
M.F. Salvik, H. Wang Assoc. Prof., Research Assistant Poultry Science Dept. University of Arkansas
An ASAE Meeting Presentation Paper No. 946520
• Chilling Poultry Meat- A Literature Review
J.E. Thomson, W.K. Whitehead and A.J. Mercuri
Poultry Science 53:1268-1281, 1974
• Factors affecting the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in relation to immersion scalding of poultry
W. R. Hudson, G.C. Mead
Veterinary Record (1987) 121, 225-227
• Effect of Time and Temperature of Continuous Chilling of Fryer Chickens on Bacterial Counts
J.E. Thomson, A. J. Mercuri, J.A. Kinner and D.H. Sanders
Abstracts of Papers Pg. 1421
• Chilling Poultry Meat-A Literature Review
J.E. Thomson, W.K. Whithead and A.J. Mercuri
Poultry Science 53: 1268-1281, 1974
• The influence of scald water pH on the death rates of Salmonella typhimurium and other bacteria attached to chicken skin
T.J. Humphrey, D.G. Lanning & Demise Leeper
Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1984, 57 355-359
• Changes in Microbial Numbers During Final Washing and Chilling of Commercially Slaughtered Broilers
K.N. May
Poultry Science 53: 1282-1285,1974
• Control of Salmonellae in Raw Poultry: A Review for The Southeastern Poultry and Egg Assoc.
Alfred R. Fain Jr., PH. D., and Steven J. Goodfellow, PH. D.
ABC Research Corp May 29,1987

Feed withdrawal and grow out (competitive exclusion)

• Turkey Osteomyelitis Complex
G.R. Huff, W. E. Huff, N.C. Rath, and J.M. Balog
USDA Ragri Research Serv., Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, University of Arkansas
2000 Poultry Science 79: 1050-1056
• Chondrobytes and Longitudinal Bone Growth: The Development of Tibial Dyschondroplasia
C. Farquharson and D. Jefferies
2000 Poultry Science 79, 994-1003
• Pesticide Degradation: Exceptions to the Rule
Barbara Petersen, J. Robert Tomerlin, and Leila Barraj
May 1996-Food Technology 221
• Variation in Toe-Web Response of Turkey Poults to Phytohemagglutinin-P and Their Resistance to Excherichia coli Challenge
G.R. Bayyari, W.E.Huff, J.M. Balog and N.C.Rath
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Science Center, University of Arkansas
1977 Poultry Science 76: 791-797
• Optimum Duration of Feed and Water Removal Prior to Processing in Order to Reduce the Potential for Fecal Contamination in Turkeys
Gary E. Duke, Maureen Basha, and Sally Noll
Dept. of Veterinary Path Biology and Dept. Animal Science University of Minnesota
1997 Poultry Science 76: 516-522
• Effect of Feed and Water Withdrawal on Green Liver Discoloration, Serum Triglycerides, and Hemoconcentration in Turkeys
W.E. Huff, G.R. Bayyari, N.C. Rath and J.M. Balog
USDA Agri. Research Serv. Poultry Sciences Center, University of Arkansas
1996 Poultry Science 75: 59-61
• Effects of Feed Withdrawal on Contamination
Stan Savage, University of Georgia
Extension Poultry Scientist
• Optimum Duration of Feed and Water Removal Prior to Processing In Order to Reduce the Potential for Fecal Contamination in Turkeys
Gary E. Duke, Maureen Basha, and Sally Noll
Dept. Of Veterinary PathoBiology and Dept. of Animal Science, University of Minnesota
1977 Poultry Science 76: 516-522
• Many factors hinder clearance of gut during feed withdrawal
Sarah Muirhead
Feedstuffs, December 18,1989
• Feed withdrawal and the Passage of Feed — Some Practical Insights
Dr. Tim Cummings, Pfizer Animal Health
Dr. Stan Savage, University of Georgia Poultry Extension
Proceedings Midwest Poultry Federation Convention 1998
• Lower Gut Contents of Broiler Chickens Withdrawn from Feed and Held in Cages
C.M. Papa,USDA, Agri. Research Service, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center
1991 Poultry Science 70: 375380
• Effect of Feed Withdrawal of Salmonella in the Crops and Ceca of Market Age Broiler Chickens
G.A. Ramirez, L.L. Sarlin, D.J. Caldwell, C.R. Yezak, JR., M.E. Hume, D.E. Corrier, J.R. Deloach, and B.M. Hargis
Dept. Poultry Science and Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology,Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
1997 Poultry Science 76: 654-656
• Effect of Lactose Administration in Drinking Water Prior To and During Feed Withdrawal on Salmonella Recovery from Broiler Crops and Ceca
E.T. Barnhart, D.J. Caldwell, M.C. Crouch, J.A.Byrd, D.E. Corrier and B.M. Hargis
Dept. Poultry Science and Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology,Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
1999 Poultry Science 78:211-214
• Evaluation of Potential Disinfectants for Preslaughter Broiler Crop Decontamination
E.T. Barnhart, L.L. Sarlin, D.J. Caldwell, J.A. Byrd, D.E.Corrier, and B.M. Hargis
Dept. Poultry Science and Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology,Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
1999 Poultry Science 78 32-37


Fecal Contamination

• Removing Fecal Contamination of Broilers By Spray-Cleaning During Evisceration
S. Notermans, R.J. Terbijhe and M. Ban Schothorst
Laboratory for Zoonoses and Food Microbiology, National Instiyute of Public Health
British Poultry Science, 21: 115-121. 1980
• The Effect of Evisceration on visible Contamination and the Microbiological Profile of Fresh Broiler Chicken Carcasses Using the Ny-Tech Evisceration System or the Conventional; Streamlined Inspection System
Dept. of Poultry Science, University of Georgia
1997 Poultry Science 76: 780-784



• The Need for Clean and Decontaminated Poultry Transport Systems
C. Rigakos, L.Carr and S. Joseph
Dept. of Microbiology, Department of Biological Resources Engineering
University of Maryland
An ASAE Meeting Presentation, Paper No. 966022
• Safe Passage of Poultry
Lewis Carr Ph.D, and Sam Joseph, Ph.D., University of Maryland
Food Quality November/December 1997, pages 93-94
• An Assessment of Live Haul Poultry Transport Container Decontamination
Lewis Carr, Christos rigakos, Glen Carpenter, Gerry Berney, and Sam Joseph
Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, Vol. 19,No.11, Pages 753-759


Foreign Material

• The Bone of the Matter
Doug Smith
Broiler Industry/ November 1997pg 22-23
• Analysis of FDA injury data from foreign objects in food products
November 3,1998
• Hard Foreign Objects in Food as a Cause of Injury and Disease: A Review
J.Richard Gorham, Food and Drug Admin., Washington, D.C.
• Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract
Webb, WA
PubMed Medline query
• Hard Foreign Objects in Food As A Cause of Injury and Disease: A Review
J. Richard Gorham, PH.D.
• Food borne Disease Handbook
VolumeIII, PartD, Physical Objects and Filth


Chlorination and antibacterial control (chemical)

• The Effect of Acetic Acid and Air Injection on Appearance, Moisture Pick-UP, Microbiological Quality, and Salmonella Incidence on Processed Poultry Carcasses
J.A. Dickens and A.D. Whittemore USDA, Agricultural Research Service
1994 Poultry Science 73: 582-586
• Effect of Chlorination in the Final Washer on Bacterial Counts of Broiler Chicken Carcasses
D.H. Sanders and C.D. Blackshear
Poultry Science Jan 1971 50: 215-219
• Utilization of the Skin Attachment Model to Determine the Antibacterial Efficacy of Potential carcass Treatments
K.C. Tamblyn, D.E. Conner and S.F.Bilgili Poultry Science Dept. and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
1997 Poultry Science 76 : 1318-1323
• The effect of chlorination on chicken carcasses infected with Salmonellae
J.M.S. Dixon and F.E. Pooley
J. Hyg., Camb. (1961), 59, 343
• The Influence of Chlorine Treatments on Bacterial Population and Taste Panel Evaluation of Chicken Fryers
L.E. Dawson, W.L. Mallman, Mary Frang and Sue Walters Michigan State University
Poultry Science (1956) 35:1140
• Free Available Chlorine Residuals for Small Nonpublic Water Supplies
E. Robert Baumann and Daniel D. Ludwig
Jour. AWWA Nov. 1962 pg. 1379-1389
• Effects of chlorination of chill water on the bacteriologic profile of raw chicken carcasses and giblets
William O. James, DVM, MPH; Robert L. Brewer, DVM; John C. Prucha, DVM, MS, Mph; W. Oliver Williams, Jr., DVM, MPH; Delila R. Parham, DVM
JAVMA Vol 200, No. 1, January 1,1992
• Pre-Chill spray of Chicken Carcasses to Reduce Salmonella typhimurium
Vanbin Li, Michael F. Slavik, Joel T. Walker, and HUA Xiong
Volume 62, No.3, 1997 Journal of Food Science 605


Broiler Slaughter — HACCP Application

• Generic HACCP Application in Broiler Slaughter and Processing
Ann Marie McNamara, Executive Secretariat, FSIS
Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 60, No.5, 1997, pages 579-604
• Strategies to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry products
P.O. White, A.R. Baker and W.O. James
Rev. Sci. tech.off,int Epiz.,1997.16(2),525-541
• Survival of Campylobacter jejuni during Poultry Processing and Pig slaughtering
J. Oosterom, G.J. A. De Wilde, E. De Boer, L.H. De Blaauw and Hetty Karman
Journal of Food Protection, Vol.46, August 1983
• Microbiological Problems of Poultry at Refrigerator Temperatures-A Review
Ella M. Barnes Food Research Institute
Journal of Sci. FD Agric. 1976,27,777782
• Improving the Bacteriological Quality of Chicken Fryers
J.E. Keel and C. E. Parmelee Dept. of Animal Science Purdue University
J. Milk and Food Technology (1968) 31: 377-381
• Effects of Six Modifications on the Incidence and Levels of Spoilage and Pathogenic Organisms on Commercially Processed Postchill Broilers
Amy L. Waldroup, Bruce M. Rathgeber, and Richard H. Forsythe; Dept. of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas
1992 J. Applied Poultry Res., inc. Pg. 226-234
• Comparison of Poultry Processing Equipment surfaces for Susceptibility to Bacterial Attachment and Biofilm Formation
J.W. Arnold and S. Silvers US Dept. of Agriculture
2000 Poultry Science 79: 1215-1221
• Influence of Processing on Environmental Contaminants in Foods
Mary E. Zabik and Matthew J. Zabik
May 1996-Food Technology pg. 225-229
• Effects of Handling and Preparation of Turkey Products on the Survival of Campylobacter jejuni
Journal of Food Protection. Vol.49, August 1986
• Decrease Microbial Contamination during Poultry Processing
Dr. R.W.A.W. Mulder
Poultry Misset, March 1985; pp52-55
• A Review of Microbiological Aspects of Poultry Processing
H.E. Brune and F.E.Cunningham
1971 World Poultry Science 27, pg. 223-240
• Contamination of Poultry during Processing
J.S. Bailey, J.E. Thomson, and N.A. Cox, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
The Microbiology of Poultry Meat Products; ch5, pg 193-211
• Distribution of “Attached” Salmonella typhimurium cells Between Poultry Skin and a Surface Film Following Water Immersion
H.S. Lillard US Dept. of Agriculture
Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 49. No. 6, Pages 449-454, June 1986
• A CCP Stop is Warranted at the Crop
Pam Bowers
Poultry Marketing & Technology- June/July 1996, pg. 14-15
• The Impact of Commercial Processing Procedures on the Bacterial Contamination and Cross-Contamination of Broiler Carcasses
H. S. Lillard United States Dept. of Agriculture
Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 53, March 1990, pg. 202-207
• Improvements in Poultry Slaughterhouse Hygiene as a Result of Cleaning Before Cooling
R.W.A.W. Mulder and C.H. Veerkamp
Poultry Science 53: 1690-1694,1974
• Microbiology Survey of Equipment in Selected Poultry Processing Plants
George A. Schuler and Arthur F. Badenhhop, Ext Food Science Dept., University of Georgia
Poultry Science 51: 830-835, 1972
• Skin Contamination of Broilers During Commercial Evisceration
K.N. May, Poultry Dept., University of Georgia
• Presence of Salmonella in the Crop and Ceca of Broiler ChickensBefore and After Preslaughter Feed Withdrawal
D.E. Corrier, J.A. Byrd, B.M. Hargis, M.E. Hume, R.H. Bailey, and L.H. Stanker
USDA Agriculture Research Service
1999 Poultry Science 78: 45-49
• Incidence, origin and significance of staphylococci on processed poultry
G.C Mead & Christine E.R. Dodd
Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement 19990,81s-91s
• Evaluation of the Chicken Crop as a Source of Salmonella Contamination for Broiler Carcasses
B.M. Hargis, D.J. Caldwell, R.L Brewer, D.E.Corrier, and J.R. Deloach USDA, Agricultural Research Service
1995 Poultry Science 74: 1548-1552

Processing and Products

• Relationship Between Aerobic Bacteria, Salmonellae, and Campylobacter on Broiler Carcasses
J.A. Cason, J.S. Bailey, N.J. Stern, A.D. Whittemore, and N.A. Cox
1997 Poultry Science 76:1037-1041
• Presence and Level of Campylobacter spp. On Broiler Carcasses Throughout the Processing Plant
M.E. Berrang and J.A. Dickens USDA-ARS Poultry Processing and Meat Quality Research Unit, Russell Research Center
2000 J.Appl. Poultry Res. 9:43-47
• Effect of Cloacal Plugging on Microbial Recovery from Partially Processed Broilers
M.T. Musgrove, J.A. Cason, D.L. Fletcher, M.J. Stern, N.A. Cox and J.S. Bailey
USDA, Agri Research Service, Russell Research Center
I997 Poultry Science 76: 530-533
• Yeast Treatment to Reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter Populations Axxociated with Broiler Chickens Subjected to Transport Stress
J. Eric line, J. Stan Bailey, Nelson A. Cox and Norman J. Stern
USDA, Agri Research Service, Russell Research Center
1997 Poultry Science 76: 1227-1231
• Use of Differential Rumen Fluid-Based Carbohydrate Agar Media for Culturing Lactose-Selected Cecal Bacteria from Chickens
Y.-Y. Fan, S.C. Ricke, C.M. Scanlan, D.J. Nisbet, A.A. Vargas-Moskola, D.E. Corrier, and J.R. Deloach
Dept. of Poultry Science, Texas A & M University
Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 58,April 1995
• Bacteria Associated with Foodborne Diseases
Russell S. Flowers, Ph.D., Michael P. Doyle, Ph.D., Joseph Lovett, Ph.D., Robert M. Twedt, Ph.D., Joseph M. Madden, Ph.D., Joseph F. Frank, Ph.D., Rosetta L. Newsome, Ph.D., Ronald G. Labbe, Ph.D., Merle D. Pierson, Ph.D., and N.R. Reddy, Ph.D.,
A Scientific Status Summary By the IFT Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition
• Factors responsible for the introduction and spread of Campylobacter jejuni infection in commercial poultry production
R.R. Kazwala, J.D. Collins, J. Hannan, R.A.P. Crinion, H. O’ Mahony
Veterinary Record (1990) 126, 305-306
• The Pathobiology of Campylobacter Infetions in Humans
Timothy L. Cover, M.D., and Martin J. Blaser, M.D.
Ann. Rev. Med. 1989.40:269-285
• Prevalence of Campylovacter jejuni in Turkey Carcass Processing and Further Processing of Turkey Products
G.R. Acuff, C. Vanderzant, M.O. Hanna, J.G. Ehlers, F.A. Golan and F.A. Gardner
Dept. of Animal Science and Dept. of Poultry Science, Texas A & M University
Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 49, September 1986
• Human Campylobacteriosis: Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects
Patrick De Mol, M.D., Ph.D., World Health Organization
Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, vol. 14, No. 6, Pages 314-316/ June 1994
• Factors Involved in the Emergence and Persistence of Food-Borne Diseases
James L. Smith and Pina M. Fratamico
U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Journal of Food Protection, Vol.58, No. 6, Pages 696-708, June 1995
• Arthritis, Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome, and Other Sequelae of Campylobacter jejuni Enteritis
James L. Smith and Pina M. Fratamico
U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Journal of Food Protection, Vol.58, No. 10, Pages1153-1170, October 1995
• Research Note: Incidence, Number, and Serotypes of Salmonella on Frozen Broiler Chickens at Retail
A.L. Izat, J.M. Kopek, and J.D. McGinnis
Dept. of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University of Arkansas
1991 Poultry Science 70: 1438-1440
• Incidence, origin and significance of staphylocci on processed poultry
G.C. Mead, Christine E.R. Dodd Agri and Food Research Council
Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement 1990, 81s-91s


New References

• Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef from the Greater Washington, D.C. Area: Cuiwei Zhao, Beilei Ge, Juan De Villena, Robert Sudler, Emily Yeh, Shaohua Zhao, David G. White, David Wagner, and Jianghong Meng
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Dec 2001, p. 5431-5436